Guntur District was formed on the 1st October, 1904 with Head Quarters at Guntur after bifurcating Krishna and Nellore districts. Prior to 1859 there was ‘Guntur District’ with Head Quarters at Guntur but with a different jurisdiction. In 1859, the district was abolished and was divided up between Machilipatnam and Rajahmundry districts which were renamed as Krishna and Godavari. In 1904 Guntur district was constituted into a separate independent district with the areas of the Taluka of Tenali, Bapatla, Guntur, Sattenapalli, Narasaraopet, Vinukonda and Palnadu of old Krishna district and Ongole taluk from Nellore district.
Tenali taluk was split on 1-7-1909 into two taluks namely Tenali and Repalle. This district was formed in 1904 was retained intact till February, 1970.
In February 1970, while forming a new District with Ongole as its head quarters parts of Bapatla and Narasaraopet taluks and the whole of Ongole taluk were taken to Prakasam District leaving Guntur district with only eight taluks namely 1) Guntur 2) Sattenapalli 3) Tenali 4) Repalle 5) Bapatla 6) Narasaraopet 7) Vinukonda and 8) Palnadu.
With effect from 1st November 1977 again, these eigh taluks were reorganised into eleven taluks by upgrading the sub-taluks of 1) Mangalagiri 2) Ponnuru 3) Macherla as taluks bifurcating the old taluks of Guntur, Bapatla and Palnadu respectively.
Later, 1980, Chilakaluripet taluk was formed as 12th taluk taking parts from Narasaraopet and Guntur Taluks.
During 1981-’82 Repalle taluk was sub divided into Pallapatla and Repalle, Tenali into Tenali and Emani, Guntur taluk into Guntur and Prathipadu, Sattenapalli taluk into Sattenapalli, Tyalluru and Rajupalem. Vinukonda Taluk into Vinukonda, Ipuru and Gurazala into Gurazala and Piduguralla thus bringing 19 taluks into existence by the end of 1981-82. Though it was contemplated in 1981-82 to constitute Amrathaluru and Tadikonda also as taluks to coincide with the 21 Panchayat Samithis yet they did not come into existence.
57 Mandals have come into existence with effect from 25-5-1985 in the place of erstwhile taluks and Firkhas. The main objective of the Government in Mandals is to take administration closer to the people.
The Guntur District was divided into Three Districts i.e., Guntur (18 Mandals), Narasaraopet / Palnadu (28 Mandals) and Bapatla (25 Mandals). 12 Mandals from Tenali Division and 13 Mandals from Prakasam District merged into Bapatla District.
The District is bounded on the North by Telangana and Krishna Districts, on the West by Mahabub Nagar Districts, on the South by Prakasam District. It is situated between 16o -03’ to 16o – 37’ or the Northern Latitude and 79o -22’ – 800.21’’ of the Eastern Longitude.
The population of the district is 20,41,723 with a Density of 280 per Sq. Km. The Percentage of literacy is 53.19 and the Percentage of Urban population to Total Population is 22.43
The total Geographical area of the District is 7,30,123 Hectares covered by forest is 1,50,759 Hectares. The net area sown is 3,15,650 Hectares. The total cropped area in the District is 3,47,114 Hectares. The area sown more than once during the year is 31,464 Hectares.
Natural and Mineral Resources
The district is rich in mineral resources. The principal minerals available are limestone, lime kankar, Napa slabs, Copper and Lead. Lime stone is being utilised by the cement factories of Macherla. There are copper mines at Agnigundala of Ipur Mandal.
The Normal Rainfall of the District is 775.3 M.M. The climate is Generally warm in Summer and the heat is very severe in Rentachintala Mandal, where the maximum temperature in the State is recorded.
The important Rivers and rivulets in the District are the Krishna, the Naguleru, the Chandravanka and Gundlakamma. The River Krishna travel about 168 KMs. along the Northern Boundary in the District.
The soils in general are very fertile and they are broadly classified as Black Cotton soil, Red loamy and sandy loamy. Black Cotton area is in 40% Red loamy is in 60% of the area in the District.
The predominant crops grown in the District are Paddy, Jowar and Bajra among Cereals, Blackgram, Bengalgram and Redgram among pulces, Cotton, Chillies and Tobacco among Non-food and commercial crops.
The two Major irrigation projects in the district are 1) Old Krishna Ayacut, now renamed at Prakasam Barrage. and 2) Nagarjuna Sagar Project Both the projects are constructed on the river Krishna. A medium Irrigation channel by name Guntur Branch Canal (GBC) and the Minor Irrigation sources like Tanks, Filter points, Tube wells etc., are providing irrigation.
The Nuzuveedu Seeds Limited (NSL Textiles) was situated in Edlapadu Mandal of Narasaraopet District.
Prominent handicraft clusters in the District have been identified. i.e., Stone carving: Durgi, Chilkaluripeta Leather puppet: Narasaraopet, Yekkalavarapalem, Chinalamarri Kalamkari painting: Chilkaluripeta.